How to Run Properly: Expert Tips for Efficient Running

Injure yourself running a few times and you’ll quickly seek advice on how to run properly. Running is an excellent form of exercise that provides numerous health benefits, such as improving cardiovascular health, increasing endurance, and promoting mental well-being. However, to reap the full benefits of running and minimize the risk of injury, it is crucial to adopt proper running form. This article will guide you through the essential techniques and tips to ensure you are running correctly and efficiently.

Proper running form begins with maintaining a straight and erect posture, ensuring your head is up, back straight, and shoulders level. A neutral pelvis is important to prevent leaning forward or backward at your waist, particularly as fatigue sets in during a run. Maintaining this posture not only helps in conserving energy but also reduces strain on your joints and muscles.

In addition to posture, there are other critical aspects of good running form, such as your stride, breathing, and arm movement. In the following sections, we will delve deeper into these elements, providing you with practical tips and recommendations that will enhance your running experience and propel you towards your fitness goals.

The Basics of How to Run Properly


A key component to running properly is maintaining good posture. Keep your head up, back straight, and shoulders level. Broadening your chest and keeping it lifted will help you engage your core and gaze forward. Ensure your shoulders are under your ears and maintain a neutral pelvis. Avoid tilting your head down or slumping your shoulders. As you get fatigued, it is essential to check your posture from time to time.

Foot Strike

The way your foot lands while running has a significant impact on your efficiency and injury prevention. There are three main types of foot strikes:

  1. Forefoot Strike: Landing on the balls of your feet
  2. Midfoot Strike: Landing flat-footed, with the middle of your foot making contact with the ground
  3. Heel Strike: Landing on your heels

While there isn’t a definitive “best” foot strike, focusing on landing with a midfoot strike is often recommended to improve efficiency and reduce injury risk.

Arm Swing

Your arm swing is essential for propelling you forward while running. Arms should remain at a 90-degree angle, with palms or fists moving from chin to hip. This motion helps maintain momentum and keep your body balanced. Remember not to hunch your shoulders – focus on keeping them down and away from your ears. Imagine squeezing a pen between your shoulder blades to maintain proper arm swing positioning throughout your run.


Cadence refers to the number of steps you take per minute while running. A higher cadence can help improve your efficiency and reduce the impact on your joints. Many experts recommend aiming for a cadence of around 180 steps per minute. To achieve this, focus on taking shorter, quicker steps rather than long, bounding strides. Practicing with a metronome or a music playlist with a specific tempo can help you maintain your desired cadence throughout your run.

Essential Running Gear

Running Shoes

A key component of proper running gear is a pair of running shoes. These shoes are specifically designed to protect the feet from the impacts of running by providing cushioning, stability, and motion control. There are various categories of running shoes tailored to suit the needs of each runner.

Let’s explore a few considerations when selecting running shoes:

  • Cushioning: Adequate cushioning helps minimize the shock on your joints and can make a significant difference in comfort and injury prevention.
  • Stability: Running shoes should provide ample support for your feet, particularly if you have flat or low arches. Stability features can help prevent overpronation and maintain proper alignment during your runs.
  • Motion Control: This feature is particularly important for those with overpronation issues. Motion control running shoes are designed to limit excess foot motion, promoting a more efficient and comfortable stride.

Remember to try on multiple pairs of shoes and choose the one that feels most comfortable and supportive.

Running App

Incorporating a running app into your routine can provide valuable insights, motivation, and personalized coaching. Some popular running apps include Strava, Nike+ Run Club, and Runkeeper. These apps are designed to track your runs and provide crucial data such as distance, pace, and elevation gained. Many running apps offer features like:

  • Tracking: Monitor your progress, set goals, and view various metrics like pace, distance, time, and calories burned.
  • Coaching: Receive customized training plans and guidance tailored to your fitness level and goals. This may include interval workouts, long runs, and proper pacing strategies to help you improve your running performance.
  • Social interaction: Connect with fellow runners through the app, join challenges, and share your achievements, providing additional motivation and accountability.

Using a running app can enhance your running experience, help you set and achieve your goals, and build a supportive running community.

Techniques to Improve Running

Warm Up and Cool Down

Before you start running, it’s important to properly warm up your body to prevent injuries and improve your performance. A good warm-up routine includes dynamic stretching and activities that mimic the movements you’ll be performing during your run, such as leg swings and arm circles. Warming up helps increase blood flow to your muscles and prepares your body for exercise.

Similarly, cooling down is essential for giving your body the time to gradually return to its resting state. Taking 5-10 minutes to cool down by walking and performing a few static stretches will help minimize muscle soreness and reduce the risk of injury.


Proper breathing is crucial for maintaining a steady and efficient running pace. Aim for a diaphragmatic breathing technique: inhale deeply through your nose, filling your lungs with air, and exhale through your mouth. This allows you to take in more oxygen, helping to reduce the risk of cramps and fatigue. Establishing a regular breathing pattern, such as inhaling for 3 steps and exhaling for 2 steps, can help you synchronize your breath with your stride, improving your overall running efficiency.


Finding the right pace is essential for improving your running technique and preventing burnout. It’s important to listen to your body and find a pace that suits your abilities and goals. For beginners, starting with a slower pace and gradually increasing speed over time is recommended. More experienced runners can focus on increasing stride turnover and aiming for a cadence of around 180-200 steps per minute, as this is considered optimal for efficient running form. To help maintain a consistent pace, consider using a metronome app or running with a partner who runs at a similar speed.

Strength and Mobility for Runners

Core Exercises

A strong core is essential for maintaining proper running form and preventing injuries. Some core exercises that can help improve running performance include:

  • Planks: Hold the plank position for 30 to 60 seconds, focusing on keeping your core engaged and body in a straight line.
  • Russian twists: Seated on the ground, hold a medicine ball or weight and twist your torso from side to side, touching the ball to the ground beside your hips.
  • Leg raises: Lying on your back, lift both legs off the ground, keeping them straight, and slowly lower them back down.

Incorporate these exercises into your regular training routine for optimal results.


Running drills are exercises that can help improve running form, increase mobility, and prevent injuries. Some effective running drills include:

  • Butt kicks: Run with high knees and focus on kicking your heels up to your glutes.
  • High knees: Run in place with an exaggerated knee lift, driving hips and knees forward.
  • A skips: Hop from one foot to the other with a high knee lift and a skip in between.
  • Steeplechase drills: Practice jumping, hurdling, and water pit techniques.

Including these drills in your warm-up routine or as part of specific training sessions can enhance your overall running performance.

Strength Training

Strength training is an important aspect of preparing for a race and increasing overall running ability. Some key exercises for runners include:

  • Squats: Strengthening the glutes, quadriceps, and hamstrings.
  • Deadlifts: Targeting the hips, glutes, and lower back muscles.
  • Lunges: Improving balance, core strength, and lower body muscle development.
  • Calf raises: Strengthening calf muscles to promote better push-off during running.

Implementing these strength training exercises into your workout routine 2-3 times per week can greatly improve running performance and reduce the risk of injury.

Preventing Injuries and Promoting Health

Reducing Impact

One of the key aspects of running properly is reducing the impact on your joints. When running, focus on a midfoot or forefoot strike rather than a heel strike. This can help distribute the force more evenly and may reduce injury risk. Incorporate strength training and flexibility exercises into your routine to improve joint stability and muscle balance, which can also lessen the load on your joints1.

Addressing Pronation Issues

Pronation is the natural rolling motion of your foot as it hits the ground. However, overpronation or underpronation can lead to alignment issues and injuries2. Ensure you have proper running shoes that suit your foot type and support your arch. Regularly replace your running shoes to maintain adequate cushioning and support. If you are unsure about your pronation, consult a professional for a gait analysis.

Nutrition and Weight Management

Maintaining a healthy diet and managing your weight are crucial for injury prevention and overall health while running. A balanced diet provides essential nutrients to support muscle recovery, energy levels, and immune function. Focus on consuming a variety of whole foods, including lean proteins, whole grains, fruits, and vegetables3. Stay hydrated by drinking water before, during, and after your runs.

Weight management plays a significant role in reducing joint impact and injury risk. Losing excess weight through a combination of diet and exercise can help relieve stress on your joints and improve running efficiency4.

In summary, preventing running injuries and promoting health involve:

  • Reducing joint impact by perfecting your running form and incorporating strength training
  • Addressing pronation issues with appropriate footwear and professional advice
  • Focusing on nutrition and weight management for optimal performance and recovery

Running for Different Goals and Abilities

Starting a Running Program

For beginners looking to start running, it’s important to ease into the routine to build a strong foundation. One approach to take is the run-walk method, which involves alternating running and walking intervals. For example, run for 30 seconds and then walk for one minute. Adjust the ratio based on your fitness level, gradually increasing the running intervals over time.

Interval Training

Interval training involves alternating periods of high-intensity running with periods of low-intensity recovery. This method helps improve speed and endurance and can be effective for both beginners and experienced runners. For instance, a beginner aiming to improve their running pace can start by running at their goal pace for half to three-quarters of a mile once a week, gradually increasing the distance covered at that pace.

Trail Running

Trail running offers a unique experience, as it involves navigating varied terrain and often incorporates uphill and downhill sections. This type of running can be enjoyed by individuals of all abilities and provides both a physical and mental challenge. To get started, choose an appropriate trail based on your current fitness level and experience. As you become more comfortable, gradually progress to more technical trails or increase the distance you cover.


Hiking is an excellent option for those looking for a lower-impact activity that still offers the benefits of running. It’s suitable for people of all fitness levels, from beginners to experienced runners seeking recovery days or cross-training opportunities. Choose a trail that matches your current capabilities and gradually increase the challenge as you become more confident and fit. Hiking can also be used as a stepping stone to transition into trail running or other forms of outdoor cardiovascular exercise.

Running Economy and Performance


Running economy is the amount of oxygen your body needs to maintain a certain pace, and improvements in efficiency can lead to better performance in distance running. A more efficient runner will consume less oxygen per distance, which ultimately leads to a better running economy (RE) 1.

To improve efficiency, focus on:

  • Proper running form: Implementing proper running techniques can help improve biomechanical efficiency and reduce the risk of injury 2.
  • Resistance training: Improved muscle coordination, leg and tendon stiffness, and neuromuscular recruitment can contribute to better running economy 3.
  • Gradual and consistent training: Adaptations in the cardiovascular and muscular systems occur with consistent and gradual training, ultimately leading to improved efficiency 4.

Speed and Power

Speed and power are crucial components of running performance. To enhance these aspects, consider:

  • Interval training: Incorporating variations of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) can improve your running speed 5. Some common interval workouts include:
    • 1:1 intervals (e.g., 1 minute fast, 1 minute slow)
    • 400-meter sprints
    • 800-meter repeats
  • Strength and power exercises: Incorporating weightlifting and plyometric exercises can improve running speed and power. Some effective exercises include:
    • Squats
    • Deadlifts
    • Box jumps
    • Hill sprints


Maintaining consistency in training is essential for enhancing running economy and overall performance 6. A consistent training regimen allows the body to adapt and improve across various factors:

  • Aerobic capacity (VO2 max)
  • Lactate threshold
  • Muscular strength and endurance
  • Neuromuscular coordination

Following a structured training plan that gradually increases mileage and intensity will help build consistency and reduce the risk of overtraining or injury.


In summary, maintaining a proper running form is essential for preventing injuries and enhancing your overall running efficiency. By focusing on key aspects such as posture, arm movement, core engagement, and foot strike, you can make significant improvements in your running technique. Now you know how to run properly.

It is crucial to maintain good posture by keeping your head up, shoulders relaxed, and chest lifted. Engage your core muscles to support your upper body and maintain balance throughout your run. Ensure that your arm movement is synchronized with your stride to maintain momentum and conserve energy.

When running, avoid overstriding and aim for a midfoot strike to minimize impact on your joints. Incorporate regular strength training and flexibility exercises to build a strong foundation for proper running form.

Remember, it might take some time to adjust to these changes in your running technique. Be patient and consistent, and your body will gradually adapt to your new approach, ultimately leading to a more efficient and enjoyable running experience.


  1. Running and jogging – preventing injury – Better Health Channel 2
  2. Running Injuries: The Ultimate Runner’s Guide to Injury Prevention 2
  3. 7 Guidelines for Injury Prevention – UConn Health 2
  4. 9 Tips for Avoiding Injuries While Exercising 2
How to Run Properly: Expert Tips for Efficient Running